TimeLine Assignment - Development 103: Origins to 1877 (End of Reconstruction)
Working from your textbook, you are to develop timelines, over the course of the semester, for each period, century, or decade from 1450 to 1877. You may define these periods as you wish, but I suggest that you begin with centuries and work toward decades: 1450s-1550s, 1550s-1650s, 1650s-1750s, 1750s-1800, 1800-1820, 1820s, 1830s, 1840s, 1850s, 1860s, 1870s. The book contains tables of "important events" that will help you, but at least five of the events on each timeline page (century or decade) must be followed by a two setence description and a specific page reference where the event is discussed in the chapter. This will, then, constitute a journal or set of outlines of early American history.
Second, for FIVE of the events over the course of the semester, you are to assume that you were a participant or eye-witness to the event, and you are to compose a journal entry describing the event and your reaction to it. You can draw on the text, the secondary readings for the course, or a google search for information about the event, but you must use your own words and write in the first person.
The journal will be collected twice during the semester -- keep up with it as you go.
Your Timeline will be evaluated for both content and presentation. You can enhance the presentation and content by:
a) illustrating your timeline. You can draw your own images, get them on line, or print out images and paste them to a hand-drawn timeline
b) including events from World history or World/American cultural history -- see the sources below and the example of 1450-1550 below. -- that is, include events in European or World history that influenced America, and/or include literary (major works published) or cultural history works occuring/produced in America.
On-Line Timeline Resources (in addition to NOT instead of your text)
David Kimmel, Timeline of American Literature, 2001. http://www.heidelberg.edu/~dkimmel/american/1850.html. Note: simple timeline with literature and world history events both listed from 1500 to 1950. Best viewed in Netscape.
Matthews Ziller, Genwriters: Writing for Future Generations, 2005. http://www.genwriters.com/chronologies.htmlNote;
links to numerous commercial sites with numerous American history timelines,
many with "pop-ups," beware, but several very good, used mostly by genealogists.
Houghton-Mifflin, Timeline, 2005. http://college.hmco.com/english/lauter/heath/4e/students/timeline/ Note: This site allows you to do a year-specific search for any year from 1530 to 2000. The yearly timeline includes listings for literature, history, and culture. Created to accompany The Heath Anthology of American Literature.
Campbell, Donna. Brief Timeline of American
Literature and Events: Pre-1620 to 1920, 2005. http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/campbell/enl311/timefram.html
Note: This site includes timelines by centuries or decades from 1500 to 1930. The timeline is divided into categories of history
TimeLine Example, 1450-1550 (Note: five of the listings have been annotated and the pages from the Foner text used for the annotation has been included. This is the model you should follow in developing your own timeline.)
Culture and the Arts
1485: Henry VII: King of England
1487: Portuguese seafarers reach Cape of Good Hope.
Europe's chief supply of gold had long been Africa, and most had been carried
across the Sahara to the Mediterranean by Muslim merchants. In 1434,
Potuguese sailors first traveled down the west coast of Africa below the
Sahara and returned, thus opening the way for direct trade with sub-Saharan
Africa states for gold, and incidentally, slaves. In the next half century
they established trading posts (forts) along the African coast and reached
the Cape of Good Hope, the "doorway to the Indies" (India, East Indies and
China). In this same period they colonized the islands of the northwest
coast of Africa (Madeira, Azores) and began planting sugar using slaves from
the Muslim kingdoms in Africa and Eastern Euopean serbs. The Portuguese
thus estbalished the connection between sugar and slavery that would fuel
the colonization of the New World. (Give
Me Liberty!, pp. 8-9)
1492: Ferdinand and Isabella force Mores to capitulate in Spain and expel Jews.
1492: Columbus (Italian sailing for Spain) crosses Atlantic to Bahamas and Hispaniola
1494: Spain and Portugal agree on division of New World
1497: John Cabot (Italian sailing for England) reaches Newfoundland
1500: Portuguese seafarers claim "Brazil" for Portugal
1502: African slaves first imported to New World
1513: Juan Ponce de Leon explores Florida for Spain
1519: Cortes lands on Mexico and invades Aztec
empire. Aided by a Mayan slave, Malitzin, who helped him interpret
the Aztec's speech, by tributary peoples who were willing to aid his conquest
of the Aztecs, and by smallpox which devasted the Aztec capital, Cortes with
only a few hundred European soldiers conquered the Aztec empire. Mexico
and later Peru would provide the Spanish with silver and gold (from mines
in which Native Americans were worked to death), and this wealth, in turn,
would fuel the dreams of other Europeans to invade the "New" World.
(Give Me Liberty!, p. 15-16).
1533: Henry VIII divorces Catherine of Aragon and begins English Reformation.
1553: Mary ("Bloody Mary") tries to restore Catholic rule to England
1558: Elizabeth I, Queen of England
1585-90: Sir Walter Raleigh promotes Roanoke colony
("Lost Colony"). Raleigh had sent 100 settlers to Roanoke, on the outer
banks of modern North Carolina, in 1585, but they abandoned the colony within
a year; a second group was sent in 1586, but when supply ships arrived in
1590, the colony had virtually disappeared. John White, one of the
original settlers in 1585, and the governor of the second expedition, painted
water colors of the indigeneous peoples and of the plants and animals of
the Carolinas that are our best testimony of what 16th century America looked
like. The colony may have been destroyed by the Spanish, whose possession
of Florida Roanoke threatened, or the settlers may have moved away with various
Native American peoples. (Give Me
Liberty!, p. 32)
1456: Guttenberg Bible published
1474: Leonardo de Vinci paints Ginevra de' Benci
1477: Publication of Marco Polo's Travels - travelogue and fantasy about splendors of "Indies"
1502: Leonardo de Vinci paints La Joconde
1516: Thomas More's Utopia
1541: John Calvin takes up residence in Geneva furthering Protestant Reformation.
Updated: August 8, 2005