Fighting of the American Revolution



1775, 19th April: Lexington and Concord - Thomas Gage (in Boston) orders troops to capture colonial munitions. Met at Lexington and Concord by militamen, disperse them but find no weapons, then return and are badly mauled by sharpshoorters

1775, 10th May - Ticonderoga captured by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen. Cannon hauled to seige of Boston

1775, 17th June: Battle of Breed's Hill and Bunker Hill. British push Americans from Charlestown neck, overlooking Boston, but at enormous cost.1775, August - December: Richard Montgomery leads ill fated expedition to Canada, captures Montreal, but turned back at Quebec City; Benedict Arnold leads second force through Maine to Quebec City as well; turned back, and continues unsuccessful "siege" during winter. American forces retreat in pitiful shape that spring.

1775, December 11th - Virginia's governor, Lord Dunmore, raises an African-American regiment by promising slaves who fight for British freedom, and then is decisively defeated by patriots.1776, February-June, General Henry Clinton, unsuccessfully tried to harass the Carolina coast, and is rebuffed June 4th in an attempted attack on Charleston, South Carolina, by forces under American General Charles Lee.


1776,
27th August, after landing at Gravesend on Long Island half a week earlier, William Howe leads British troops against American positions on Brooklyn Heights, and dislodges American defenses in bloody, one-sided battle.

1776, 15th September, British launch amphibious assault of Manhattan from Brooklyn at Kips' Bay, take New York City, but fail to stop Washington's retreat to fortifications north of city.

1776, 16th October, Howe takes Fort Washington (near current GW Bridge); two days later General Lord Cornwallis takes Fort Lee.

1776, 28th October, inconclusive skirmish at White Plains. Washington retreats across New Jersey to Pennsylvania in three columns, with no more than 6,000 of his troops left.

1776, 26th December, remnant of American army slips across Delaware and captures Hessian troops garrisoning at Trenton.
 
1777, 3rd January, Washington strikes again at British at Princeton, then moves to winter quarters at Morristown. Hugh Mercer killed in skirmish at Princeton.

1777, July-September - Howe, supported by British fleet under Admirral Sir Richard Howe move up Chesapeake Bay and overland to occupy Philadelphia. Tey defeat Washington at Brandywine Creek (Chad's Ford), September 11th and repulse an American attack at Germantown, October 4th.


1777, June-October, General John Burgoyne launches attack down Lake Champlain, toward Albany. He recaptures Ticonderoga.

1777, 6th August, Nickolas Herkimer's forces coming to relieve Fort Stanwix, attacked by Iroquois, Canadian, loyalist and British troops under Col. Barry St. Leger are ambushed in Mohawk Valley and forced to retreat. Herkimer dies of wounds. This leg of Burgoyne's invasion initially goes quite well.

1777, 11th August, strong British force sent by Burgoyne to raid Bennington, Vermont, defeated with extreme casualties.

1777, 19th September, Burgoyne crosses to west side of Hudson and engages General Horatio Gates forces at Freeman's Farm, near Saratoga, New York Forces under Daniel Morgan and Benedict Arnold help stop Burgoyne's regiments.

1777, 7th October, second engagement near Saratoga at Bemis Heights, and Morgan and Arnold again inflict heavy casualties on the British.

1777, 16th October, General Clinton moving up from new York City to connect with Burgoyne, attacks and burns Kingston, but then stops rather than push on to Albany.

1777, 17th October, Burgoyne surrenders British army of 5,000 men to Gates at Saratoga.

1777, 17th December, France recognizes American independence.

1777-1778 - winter at Valley Forge for American army.

1778, 6th February, France-American alliance signed.

1778, 8th May, Clinton replaces William Howe, and British evacuate Philadelphia June 18th for New York.

1778, 28th June, Washington attacks Clinton at Monmouth as Clinton crosses New Jersey from Philadelphia to New York. Inconclusive battle that Americans might have won results in court-martial of General Charles Lee.
1778, 3rd July, "Wyoming Massacre" of Seneca and Cayuga Iroquois at Forty Fort in Wyoming Valley. Blamed on Joseph Brant; paroled patriot militia violate arrangement.

1778, 11th November, Cherry Valley massacre of loyalists and patriots by Iroquois angered about Wyoming Valley. Joseph Brant saves lives of many non-combatants.

1778, July-1779, February, George Rogers Clark, acting for Virginia, defeats British in Ohio River Valley under Colonel Henry Hamilton, known as the "Hair Buyer" for his alleged encouragement of Indian scalping of patriots.

1778, August, unsuccessful coordinated french-American effort to dislodge British at Newport Rhode Island (taken during the 1776 campaign).
 
1778, 29th December, Savannah occupied by British [Slave regiment raised in Caribbean employed in the attack.]

1779, August-September, General John Sullivan's expedition against loyalist and Iroquois in Mohawk Valley destroys villages and corn supplies.


1779, 21st June, Spain declares war on Great Britain but does recognize US independence.

1779, September-October, combined American (land)-French (sea) force fails to retake Savannah. Clinton evacuates Newport to reinforce the South.



1780, 12th May, Charleston falls to British forces under Clinton, more than 5,000 patriot troops surrender, and Banastre Tarleton begins bloody cavalry assaults on remaining patriot units.

1780, 25th May, Connecticut regiments enduring worst winter of war at Morristown, New Jersey, mutiny; brought to order by Pennsylvania troops at George Washington's command.

1780, June-August, Francis Marion ("Swamp Fox") and Thomas Sumter ("Fighting Gamecock") engage in "guerrilla warfare" against British occupation forces in South Carolina. Sumter is defeated by Tarleton in August, and Cornwallis begins invasion of South Carolina.

1780, 16th August, patriot forces, led by Horatio Gates, attempt to counterattack against British at Camden, South Carolina and suffer crushing defeat.

1780, 21st September, George Washington discovers Benedict Arnold's treasonous attempt to turn West Point over to British; Arnold escapes. Major John André, Arnold's contact, captured, tried, and hung. Arnold becomes a British general and leads raids on Virginia and Connecticut.

1780, 7th October, British forces screening Cornwallis flank caught at King's Mountain and all killed or captured.

1780, 14th October, Nathanael Greene replaces Horatio Gates as southern commander.

1781, 17th January, Daniel Morgan defeats Tarleton at Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina.

1781, 1st March, Articles of Confederation ratified.

1781, 15th March, Cornwallis pursuse Greene to Don River in N.C., and forces him from field at Battle of Guilford Court House, but at tremendous cost; retreats to Charleston. Greene fails to dislodge Cornwallis from Ninety Six and Eutaw Springs, but takes back much of the Carolinas.
 
1781, May-October, Cornwallis launches Virginia campaign; trapped at Yorktown by French fleet and American forces, surrenders on 18th of October.

1782, March, North ministry falls in Great Britain; new ministry under Lord Rockingham opens peace negotiations.

1782, 30th November, preliminary peace treaty signed with British by Adams, Jay, Henry Laurens, and Franklin for the United States [France kept out of negotiations].

1783, 26th April, 7,000 loyalists sail to Great Britain (including Galloway)

1783, 15th April, preliminary peace treaty ratified by Congress; 3rd September final treaty signed in Paris, 14 January 1784, final treaty ratified in Congress and exchanged with British 12 May 1784.