so, a few months after the seventh day of December of the year nineteen
the only Japanese left on the west coast of the United States was
Inabukuro who, while it has been forgotten whether he was
AmericanJapanese, picked up an "I am Chinese"‑not American or
American‑Chinese or Chinese‑American but "I am Chinese" ‑button and
got a job in a California shipyard.
John Okada, No-No Boy (1957, 1976), pp. x-xi.
1. Experience of Japanese Immigrants in America
-Chinese, Japanese, and Korean immigration to the United States2. World War II and Alien Policy
-"Gentlemen's Agreement" of 1906-1907
-National Origins Act of 1924 (1921) and Implementation in 1929
-"aliens ineligible for citizenship"
Ozawa v. United States 260 US 178 (1922)
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind 261 US 204 (1923)
-Issei, Nisei, Kibei - Japanese-American identity
Film Clip: John Ford's December 7th (The unreleased footage)
-Smith Act (Alien Registration Act) of 19403. Relocation (Mass Forced Evacuation from the West Coast)
-Francis Biddle, Atrorney Genera
-initial response to December 7th, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor
-role of John L. De Witt - Who supported? Who opposed?
-the Biddle plan
-Executive Order 9066 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves
-establishing the War Relocation Authority (WRA)
. Putting the Plan into Operation
-role of the Japanese
American Citizens League
"Some of my
friends, and some who are not my
friends, also call me Moses. Moses Masaoka. They say that like the
prophet, I have led my people on a long journey through the wilderness
and travail." ‑‑ from "They Call Me Moses Masaoka"
From PBS Website: Conscience and the Constitutionhttp://www.pbs.org/itvs/conscience/the story/characters/masaoka mike.html 2/27/2005
-all Japanese and dangerous Germans and Italians (could America have interned Joe DiMaggio's parents?)5. Relocation in the Courts
-"Sand and Cactus" setting
-resistance - protest against conditions
-resistance - refusal to serve
Film Clip: Something Strong Within
-Mary Asaba Ventura - challenging the curfew6. Aftermath
-Gordon Kiyoshi Hirabayashi
-Fred Korematsu - finally a split decision (Robert Jackson, Nuremberg prosecutor)
LETTER FROM John J. McCloy TO Jane B. Kaihatsu, April 12, 1984. John J. McCloy was the ranking surviving individual who participated in the decision to relocate the Japanese Americans in the winter of 1941-42. Then assistant secretary of war, McCloy had a distinguished career as a member of the New York bar and as an appointee of Democratic and Republican presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Jimmy Carter. In this letter, McCloy expresses his dissatisfaction with the hearing held to consider redress and compensation for Americans held in internment camps
you are perhaps aware, I have
testified already at some length in response to the attempt to further
recompense those who were temporarily relocated under the direct orders
President Roosevelt, (who was the only official of the government who
order the step), as a defense to the surprise attack by the Japanese
Air Force on Pearl Harbor, an event which plunged us into the Pacific
shortly thereafter into the war with Germany. I hope to be given
opportunity to defend the country against what I feel would be a great
injustice to the American taxpayer.
-war service and compensation*Note: these cases involved American citizens of Japanese ancestry (generally Nisei) as well as first generation Japanese-Americans (Issei) who had been denied citizenship, despite long residence, by American law.
-alien land laws declared unconstitutional (1952)
-immigration act of 1965
-final court challenge (1988) and the move for (and against) redress