I.   Social Background


A.   Urbanization

B.   Immigration

C.   Progressivism: Social Control

D.   Radicalism: Anarchism and Socialism


II.  U.S. Entry into World War I

A.   President Woodrow Wilson

B.   Espionage Act (1917)

C.   Sedition Act (1918)

D.   Federal Repression

E.   Nativism


III. The Case


A.   Russian Revolution

B.   The Crime

C.   The Defendants

D.   Judge=s Rulings

E.   Verdict and Sentence


IV.  The Appeal to the Supreme Court


A.   Precedents: Schenck and Debs

B.   Oliver Wendell Holmes and Zechariah Chafee

C.   The Ruling


V.   The Aftermath


A.   Prison and Deportations

B.   Disillusionment, Death, and Exile

C.   Red Scare

D.   Creation of American Civil Liberties Union